There are many reasons why a person may have vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. The commonest causes are threatened miscarriage or abortion or antepartum haemorrhage.
However sometime the bleeding may occur under normal circumstances , in normal pregnancies .
Some conditions that occur in normal pregnancies are
- Implantation Bleeding or Streaking – In this case there is spotting or streaking at the time of implantation or at the regular time of bleeding. This presents with scant spotting or scant bleeding. This may happen for first three months or during the first trimester, however the pregnancy continues normally.
- Breakthrough Bleeding -Some ladies have ‘breakthrough bleeding’, This is bleeding on the dates when the patient would have normal periods. Bleeding therefore may occur at 4.8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy and may continue for the first three months. This condition may be absolutely normal in some patients whilst in others it may imply a low level of the pregnancy hormones. However, in most cases the pregnancy continues normally.
Other causes of bleeding are more serious and may indicate conditions as
- Threatened or missed abortion
- Anti-partum haemorrhage
- Low lying placenta or placenta previa
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Uterine Fibroids
- Cervical lesions – inflammatory or malignant
The Actions to be taken If one has bleeding During Pregnancy
- Visit your Doctor – The first step that needs to be taken is to visit the doctor immediately
- Ultrasound of The Abdomen and Pelvis-The ultrasound of the pelvis and the abdomen needs to be done to see if the pregnancy is viable and progressing normally.
- Estimation of Pregnancy Hormone to see that they are normal and adequate. This pregnancy hormone is Progesterone and levels of progesterone should be adequate to maintain a normal pregnancy. If these levels are low then the person may need extraneous hormones to ensure that the pregnancy can be carried on normally
- Beta Hcg is another hormone secreted by the fetoplacental unit and also indicates the viability of the pregnancy and whether the pregnancy is normal or not. Low values may mean an abnormal pregnancy ,ectopic pregnancy , missed abortion or threatened abortion .This value also needs to be estimated so that the necessary steps to safe guard the baby and the mother are taken by the doctor .