Symptoms & Treatment

What is PCOS? | Complications | Symptoms| Treatment

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PCOS is a condition associated with hormonal imbalance in the women of reproductive age group. In this condition there are many cysts which develop in the ovaries thus hampering ovulation and leading to infertility. Also, there is increased production of male hormone (testosterone), insulin resistance and all these collectively causing an array of symptoms in the patients.

PCOS is one of the most common cause of infertility in women. There is no specific etiology but studies have shown that genetics may play a role.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Irregular periords; heavy cycles or irregular gap between the cycles.
  • Abnormal hair distribution like on the face (hirsutism), chest, inner aspects of the thigh.
  • Thinning of hair and male pattern of baldness.
  • Acne.
  • Weight gain and difficulty in losing weight.
  • Mood swings, anxiety and depression.

COMPLICATIONS:

  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Infertility
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy induced hypertension
  • Sleep apnea
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Endometrial cancer

LABORATORY WORK-UP:

  • Serum Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Serum Leutinizing hormone (LH)
  • Serum Estrogen
  • Serum Progesterone
  • Serum Testosterone
  • Sex hormone binding globulin.
  • Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH)
  • Androstenedione

OTHER BLOOD TESTS:

  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Lipid profile
  • HbA1c
  • Serum Insulin levels

On ultrasonographic examination, there will be presence of many cysts in the ovaries. Although, definite criteria for diagnosis of PCOS is not established and combination of clinical, radiological and pathological findings helps in coming to the diagnosis.

TREATMENT:

  • Lifestyle change
  • Oral contraceptive pill to regularize the cycles
  • Weight loss
  • Cosmetic laser therapy for hirsutism.

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